Auto Insurance
8 min read

The Types of Car Damage Every Driver Needs To Know

Published on
August 1, 2023

When it comes to the upkeep and safety of our vehicles, knowledge is power. Understanding the various types of car damage, how serious they can get, and the potential costs can help you in maintaining your car, dealing with accidents, and negotiating with insurers. In this blog post, we'll dive into the numerous types of car damage, provide tips on recognizing hidden damage in your vehicle, and offer advice on dealing with insurance write-offs and damage repair costs.

Understanding Car Damage

Car damage isn't just about the visual appeal of your vehicle. It can affect the performance, safety, and value of your car. Understanding the main types of body damage can help you better assess any issues after a collision and get the necessary repairs done quickly.

What are the main types of car body damage?

There are countless ways your vehicle can sustain damage. Car body damage can range from simple dings and scratches to major structural issues affecting the vehicle's functionality. Factors such as weather, collisions, accidents, or even a stray shopping cart can contribute to these damages.

The cost of car body damage repair can vary greatly depending on the type and extent of the damage. If you understand how your vehicle is damaged, you have a better understanding of how it should be repaired when speaking with an auto-body shop.

Weather Damage

Weather damage can result from prolonged exposure to harsh elements like sun, hail, or heavy snow. Sunlight can lead to paint fading and interior materials deteriorating, while hail can dent the car’s bodywork. Snow and ice, especially when combined with road salt, can speed up the rusting process, particularly on the undercarriage of your vehicle.

It's important to regularly check your car for weather damage and protect it as much as possible from extreme weather conditions. So, if you can, it's kinda better to stash your ride in a garage instead of letting it hang out outside.

Major Collisions and Accidents

Major collisions can result in structural damage to your vehicle. This can include damage to the vehicle's frame, which if not correctly repaired, can affect the car's structural integrity and safety. Internal components such as the engine, transmission, and suspension system may also suffer significant damage. In some severe cases, the vehicle may be considered a total loss by your car insurance company.

Cracked Windshields

A cracked windshield can happen when debris hits your car’s windshield at high speeds or during drastic temperature changes. While small cracks might seem like a minor issue, they can quickly spread and get in the way of your visibility, posing a safety risk. Depending on the size of the crack, the windshield may need repair or a complete replacement.

Fender Benders

Fender benders typically refer to minor collisions that result in cosmetic damage to the vehicle, particularly to the front or rear fenders. While these might seem minor, they can hide underlying damage, such as a misalignment of the vehicle's frame or damage to the bumper's shock-absorbing capabilities.

Body Dents

Body dents can occur from various causes, such as car doors hitting your vehicle in a parking lot, shopping carts, or hail. Depending on the size and location, these dents may be repairable using paintless dent removal techniques. However, larger dents might require more extensive work, including body filler and repainting.

Paint Damage and Scratches

Paint damage and scratches are common types of car damage. They can happen from minor impacts, vandalism, or even improper washing techniques. While they primarily affect the vehicle's aesthetics, if left untreated, scratches can expose the metal underneath to the elements, leading to rust and corrosion over time.

Bumper Damage

Bumpers are designed to absorb impact and protect the rest of your car during a collision. Damage to the bumper can range from scratches and dents to severe cracking. It's important to repair or replace a damaged bumper promptly as it plays a critical role in your vehicle's safety during a crash.

Suspension Damage

Your car's suspension system is responsible for providing a smooth ride and keeping the car in control. Damage to the suspension can occur due to potholes, speed bumps, or accidents. Symptoms of suspension damage include a rough ride, pulling to one side, or uneven tire wear.

Dealing with Car Damage

Understanding the extent of car damage is also essential. This involves knowing the most expensive types of damage, assessing the level of harm, recognizing the severity, and detecting hidden damages.

What is the most expensive damage on a car?

Engine and transmission damage is typically the most expensive to repair. These components are complex and labor-intensive to fix or replace. Damage to the vehicle's frame or structure can also be pricey, as it requires specialized equipment and expertise to correct.

How to Assess Your Vehicle Damage After an Accident

Being able to assess your vehicle's damage after an accident is crucial in understanding the next steps for repair or replacement.

Minor Damage

Minor damage typically includes small dents, scratches, and cosmetic issues. These damages usually don't impact the vehicle's functionality, but can still be important to repair to maintain the car's appearance and value.

Moderate Damage

Moderate damage can involve larger dents, deeper scratches, and cracks that might require more significant body work or replacement of parts. This can include broken mirrors or lights, or damage to bumpers.

Severe Damage

Severe damage usually means that key components of the car are affected, such as the engine, transmission, or suspension. These damages often render the vehicle unsafe or impossible to drive until repairs are made.

Examples of Hidden Damages Found After a Car Accident

After an accident, some of the damage may not be visible. Here are some hidden damages you should be aware of:

Frame Damage

Frame damage refers to damage to the vehicle's structural integrity. It can impact the car's performance and safety and may not be noticeable without a professional inspection.

Trunk Damage

Trunk damage can impact the vehicle's sealing, leading to water leaks or issues with opening and closing the trunk. It's often overlooked but should be addressed promptly.

Alignment Issues

Accidents can knock a car's wheels out of alignment. This may not be evident right away, but over time it can cause uneven tire wear and handling issues.

Electrical System Damage

Your car's electrical system, which controls features like your lights, stereo, and power features, can be damaged in an accident. Symptoms can include flickering lights or non-functioning electrical components.


If the car's paint is scratched or chipped during the accident, it can expose the metal underneath to moisture, leading to rust over time.

Transmission Damage

Accidents can cause leaks or cracks in the transmission system, leading to performance issues or complete transmission failure.

Airbag System Damage

Even if the airbags didn't deploy during the accident, the impact might have damaged the airbag system, potentially causing them not to deploy correctly in the future.

Tire and Wheel Damage

Tire and wheel damage can occur in an accident and may not be immediately apparent, especially if it's on the inside of the tire or wheel.

Damage to the Exhaust System

The impact of an accident can cause damage to the exhaust system, affecting the car's emissions and engine performance.

Internal Fluid Leaks

Internal fluid leaks, including oil or coolant leaks, can occur due to an accident. If left untreated, these can lead to engine damage or overheating.

What Should I Do After An Accident?

After making sure everyone's safety at the accident scene, document the incident thoroughly, exchange information with other parties involved, and report the accident to your insurance company as soon as possible. Seek professional help to assess and repair any damages.

Insurance Write-Offs and Damage Categories

When your vehicle suffers damage, your car insurance company will categorize the severity of the damage. Depending on the extent of the damage, your car may be classified as a write-off.

An insurance write-off is when the cost to repair your car is higher than the vehicle's value, or if the vehicle is so damaged that it's unsafe to go back on the road. There are different categories used by insurers to classify the severity of the damage. An assessor will inspect the vehicle to determine the damage category, considering factors such as the car's pre-accident condition, age, and mileage.

Category A: Completely Ruined

Category A is the most severe category. These cars are so damaged that they can't be repaired, and even their parts can't be salvaged for use in other vehicles.

Category B: Only Good For Parts

Category B cars are also beyond repair, but unlike Category A, some parts from these cars can be salvaged and reused. However, the body shell should be crushed to prevent the vehicle from being put back on the road.

Category S: Major Damage

Previously Category C, Category S cars have suffered significant structural damage, like a bent or twisted chassis or a crushed crumple zone. However, they can be repaired and re-sold, but the buyer must be informed of the car's history.

Category N: Minor Damage

Previously Category D, Category N cars haven't sustained structural damage but might have issues like cosmetic damage, electrical problems, or other non-structural problems. These can also be repaired and resold with the history disclosed to the buyer.

Dealing with Category D (N) Cars

Dealing with Category D cars (now referred to as Category N cars) can be complex due to the non-structural damage they've sustained.

Buying a Cat D car

Buying a Cat D car can be a good way to save money as they are usually priced lower than comparable undamaged cars. However, you should make sure that the vehicle has been properly repaired, and it's advisable to have the vehicle checked by a professional before purchasing.

Insuring a Cat D car, does it cost more?

Insuring a Cat D car can cost more than insuring an undamaged car, primarily due to the vehicle's history of damage and repair. Some insurers may refuse to insure these cars, so it's important to shop around for the best insurance deal.

How to check if a car is a Cat D?

To check if a car is a Cat D, you can use a vehicle history check service, which will provide you with information about the vehicle's past, including whether it's been categorized as Cat D.

How to repair a Cat D Car?

Repairing a Cat D car should be left to professional mechanics to make sure the vehicle is safe to drive. The extent of the repairs will depend on the damage, which can range from cosmetic fixes to more complicated electrical repairs.

How Much Does Car Damage Repair Cost?

The cost to repair car damage varies widely based on the severity and location of the damage, the make and model of the car, and local labor rates. Minor damage like small dents and scratches can often be repaired for a few hundred dollars, while significant structural damage can cost several thousand dollars to repair.

How much does car body damage repair cost?

Repairing car body damage can range from a few hundred dollars for minor dents and scratches to several thousand for major damage to the car's structure or mechanics. It's always best to get quotes from several repair shops to make sure you're getting a fair price.

Hopefully Your Vehicle Never Experiences Any Damage

Understanding car damage, its categories, and how to handle repairs or insurance write-offs is essential for every driver. It's always best to consult with professionals when dealing with vehicle damage, and make sure any repair work is carried out to a high standard. Remember, while some damages may seem minor, they could lead to more severe problems down the line if not addressed promptly and properly.

About the Author: This article was crafted by the LOOP Marketing Team. Comprising of seasoned professionals with expertise in the insurance industry, our team is dedicated to providing readers with accurate, up-to-date, and valuable information. At LOOP, we're passionate about helping families navigate the world of car insurance, ensuring they get the best coverage at the most affordable rates. Learn more about our mission and values here.

For more insights on auto insurance and other related topics, visit our blog.

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